INT n/INTO/INT3/INT1 — Call to Interrupt Procedure

Opcode Instruction Op/En 64-Bit Mode Compat/Leg Mode Description
CC INT3 ZO Valid Valid Generate breakpoint trap.
CD ib INT imm8 I Valid Valid Generate software interrupt with vector specified by immediate byte.
CE INTO ZO Invalid Valid Generate overflow trap if overflow flag is 1.
F1 INT1 ZO Valid Valid Generate debug trap.

Instruction Operand Encoding

Op/En Operand 1 Operand 2 Operand 3 Operand 4
ZO NA NA NA NA
I imm8 NA NA NA

Description

The INT n instruction generates a call to the interrupt or exception handler specified with the destination operand (see the section titled “Interrupts and Exceptions” in Chapter 6 of the Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1). The destination operand specifies a vector from 0 to 255, encoded as an 8-bit unsigned intermediate value. Each vector provides an index to a gate descriptor in the IDT. The first 32 vectors are reserved by Intel for system use. Some of these vectors are used for internally generated exceptions.

The INT n instruction is the general mnemonic for executing a software-generated call to an interrupt handler. The INTO instruction is a special mnemonic for calling overflow exception (#OF), exception 4. The overflow interrupt checks the OF flag in the EFLAGS register and calls the overflow interrupt handler if the OF flag is set to 1. (The INTO instruction cannot be used in 64-bit mode.)

The INT3 instruction uses a one-byte opcode (CC) and is intended for calling the debug exception handler with a breakpoint exception (#BP). (This one-byte form is useful because it can replace the first byte of any instruction at which a breakpoint is desired, including other one-byte instructions, without overwriting other instructions.)

The INT1 instruction also uses a one-byte opcode (F1) and generates a debug exception (#DB) without setting any bits in DR6.1 Hardware vendors may use the INT1 instruction for hardware debug. For that reason, Intel recommends software vendors instead use the INT3 instruction for software breakpoints.

1. The mnemonic ICEBP has also been used for the instruction with opcode F1.

An interrupt generated by the INTO, INT3, or INT1 instruction differs from one generated by INT n in the following ways:

(These features do not pertain to CD03, the “normal” 2-byte opcode for INT 3. Intel and Microsoft assemblers will not generate the CD03 opcode from any mnemonic, but this opcode can be created by direct numeric code definition or by self-modifying code.)

The action of the INT n instruction (including the INTO, INT3, and INT1 instructions) is similar to that of a far call made with the CALL instruction. The primary difference is that with the INT n instruction, the EFLAGS register is pushed onto the stack before the return address. (The return address is a far address consisting of the current values of the CS and EIP registers.) Returns from interrupt procedures are handled with the IRET instruction, which pops the EFLAGS information and return address from the stack.

Each of the INT n, INTO, and INT3 instructions generates a general-protection exception (#GP) if the CPL is greater than the DPL value in the selected gate descriptor in the IDT. In contrast, the INT1 instruction can deliver a #DB

even if the CPL is greater than the DPL of descriptor 1 in the IDT. (This behavior supports the use of INT1 by hardware vendors performing hardware debug.)

The vector specifies an interrupt descriptor in the interrupt descriptor table (IDT); that is, it provides index into the IDT. The selected interrupt descriptor in turn contains a pointer to an interrupt or exception handler procedure. In protected mode, the IDT contains an array of 8-byte descriptors, each of which is an interrupt gate, trap gate, or task gate. In real-address mode, the IDT is an array of 4-byte far pointers (2-byte code segment selector and a 2-byte instruction pointer), each of which point directly to a procedure in the selected segment. (Note that in real-address mode, the IDT is called the interrupt vector table, and its pointers are called interrupt vectors.)

The following decision table indicates which action in the lower portion of the table is taken given the conditions in the upper portion of the table. Each Y in the lower section of the decision table represents a procedure defined in the “Operation” section for this instruction (except #GP).

PE 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
VM 0 1 1
IOPL <3 =3
DPL/CPL RELATIONSHIP DPL< CPL DPL> CPL DPL= CPL or C DPL< CPL & NC
INTERRUPT TYPE S/W
GATE TYPE Task Trap or Interrupt Trap or Interrupt Trap or Interrupt Trap or Interrupt Trap or Interrupt
REAL-ADDRESS-MODE Y
PROTECTED-MODE Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
TRAP-OR-INTERRUPTGATE Y Y Y Y Y
INTER-PRIVILEGE-LEVELINTERRUPT Y
INTRA-PRIVILEGE-LEVELINTERRUPT Y
INTERRUPT-FROM-VIRTUAL-8086-MODE Y
TASK-GATE Y
#GP Y Y Y
Table 3-51. Decision Table

− Don't Care.

Y Yes, action taken.

Blank Action not taken.

S/W Applies to INT n, INT3, and INTO, but not to INT1.

When the processor is executing in virtual-8086 mode, the IOPL determines the action of the INT n instruction. If the IOPL is less than 3, the processor generates a #GP(selector) exception; if the IOPL is 3, the processor executes a protected mode interrupt to privilege level 0. The interrupt gate's DPL must be set to 3 and the target CPL of the interrupt handler procedure must be 0 to execute the protected mode interrupt to privilege level 0.

The interrupt descriptor table register (IDTR) specifies the base linear address and limit of the IDT. The initial base address value of the IDTR after the processor is powered up or reset is 0.

Operation

The following operational description applies not only to the INT n, INTO, INT3, or INT1 instructions, but also to
external interrupts, nonmaskable interrupts (NMIs), and exceptions. Some of these events push onto the stack an
error code.
The operational description specifies numerous checks whose failure may result in delivery of a nested exception.
In these cases, the original event is not delivered.
The operational description specifies the error code delivered by any nested exception. In some cases, the error
code is specified with a pseudofunction error_code(num,idt,ext), where idt and ext are bit values. The pseudofunc-
tion produces an error code as follows: (1) if idt is 0, the error code is (num & FCH) | ext; (2) if idt is 1, the error
code is (num « 3) | 2 | ext.
In many cases, the pseudofunction error_code is invoked with a pseudovariable EXT. The value of EXT depends on
the nature of the event whose delivery encountered a nested exception: if that event is a software interrupt (INT n,
INT3, or INTO), EXT is 0; otherwise (including INT1), EXT is 1.
IF PE = 0
    THEN
        GOTO REAL-ADDRESS-MODE;
    ELSE (* PE = 1 *)
        IF (EFLAGS.VM = 1 AND CR4.VME = 0 AND IOPL < 3 AND INT n)
            THEN
                    #GP(0); (* Bit 0 of error code is 0 because INT n *)
            ELSE
                IF (EFLAGS.VM = 1 AND CR4.VME = 1 AND INT n)
                        THEN
                            Consult bit n of the software interrupt redirection bit map in the TSS;
                            IF bit n is clear
                                THEN (* redirect interrupt to 8086 program interrupt handler *)
                                    Push EFLAGS[15:0]; (* if IOPL < 3, save VIF in IF position and save IOPL position as 3 *)
                                    Push CS;
                                    Push IP;
                                    IF IOPL = 3
                                        THEN IF ← 0; (* Clear interrupt flag *)
                                        ELSE VIF ← 0; (* Clear virtual interrupt flag *)
                                    FI;
                                    TF ← 0; (* Clear trap flag *)
                                    load CS and EIP (lower 16 bits only) from entry n in interrupt vector table referenced from TSS;
                                ELSE
                                    IF IOPL = 3
                                        THEN GOTO PROTECTED-MODE;
                                        ELSE #GP(0); (* Bit 0 of error code is 0 because INT n *)
                                    FI;
                            FI;
                        ELSE (* Protected mode, IA-32e mode, or virtual-8086 mode interrupt *)
                            IF (IA32_EFER.LMA = 0)
                                THEN (* Protected mode, or virtual-8086 mode interrupt *)
                                    GOTO PROTECTED-MODE;
                                ELSE (* IA-32e mode interrupt *)
                                GOTO IA-32e-MODE;
                            FI;
                FI;
        FI;
FI;
REAL-ADDRESS-MODE:
    IF ((vector_number « 2) + 3) is not within IDT limit
        THEN #GP; FI;
    IF stack not large enough for a 6-byte return information
        THEN #SS; FI;
    Push (EFLAGS[15:0]);
    IF ← 0; (* Clear interrupt flag *)
    TF ← 0; (* Clear trap flag *)
    AC ← 0; (* Clear AC flag *)
    Push(CS);
    Push(IP);
    (* No error codes are pushed in real-address mode*)
    CS ← IDT(Descriptor (vector_number « 2), selector));
    EIP ← IDT(Descriptor (vector_number « 2), offset)); (* 16 bit offset AND 0000FFFFH *)
END;
PROTECTED-MODE:
    IF ((vector_number « 3) + 7) is not within IDT limits
    or selected IDT descriptor is not an interrupt-, trap-, or task-gate type
        THEN #GP(error_code(vector_number,1,EXT)); FI;
        (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
    IF software interrupt (* Generated by INT n, INT3, or INTO; does not apply to INT1 *)
        THEN
            IF gate DPL < CPL (* PE = 1, DPL < CPL, software interrupt *)
                THEN #GP(error_code(vector_number,1,0)); FI;
                (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
                (* ext operand to error_code is 0 because INT n, INT3, or INTO*)
    FI;
    IF gate not present
        THEN #NP(error_code(vector_number,1,EXT)); FI;
        (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
    IF task gate (* Specified in the selected interrupt table descriptor *)
        THEN GOTO TASK-GATE;
        ELSE GOTO TRAP-OR-INTERRUPT-GATE; (* PE = 1, trap/interrupt gate *)
    FI;
END;
IA-32e-MODE:
    IF INTO and CS.L = 1 (64-bit mode)
        THEN #UD;
    FI;
    IF ((vector_number « 4) + 15) is not in IDT limits
    or selected IDT descriptor is not an interrupt-, or trap-gate type
        THEN #GP(error_code(vector_number,1,EXT));
        (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
    FI;
    IF software interrupt (* Generated by INT n, INT3, or INTO; does not apply to INT1 *)
        THEN
            IF gate DPL < CPL (* PE = 1, DPL < CPL, software interrupt *)
                THEN #GP(error_code(vector_number,1,0));
                (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
                (* ext operand to error_code is 0 because INT n, INT3, or INTO*)
            FI;
    FI;
    IF gate not present
        THEN #NP(error_code(vector_number,1,EXT));
        (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
    FI;
    GOTO TRAP-OR-INTERRUPT-GATE; (* Trap/interrupt gate *)
END;
TASK-GATE: (* PE = 1, task gate *)
    Read TSS selector in task gate (IDT descriptor);
        IF local/global bit is set to local or index not within GDT limits
            THEN #GP(error_code(TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
            (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
        Access TSS descriptor in GDT;
        IF TSS descriptor specifies that the TSS is busy (low-order 5 bits set to 00001)
            THEN #GP(error_code(TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
            (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
        IF TSS not present
            THEN #NP(error_code(TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
            (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    SWITCH-TASKS (with nesting) to TSS;
    IF interrupt caused by fault with error code
        THEN
            IF stack limit does not allow push of error code
                THEN #SS(EXT); FI;
            Push(error code);
    FI;
    IF EIP not within code segment limit
        THEN #GP(EXT); FI;
END;
TRAP-OR-INTERRUPT-GATE:
    Read new code-segment selector for trap or interrupt gate (IDT descriptor);
    IF new code-segment selector is NULL
        THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
    IF new code-segment selector is not within its descriptor table limits
        THEN #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT)); FI;
        (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    Read descriptor referenced by new code-segment selector;
    IF descriptor does not indicate a code segment or new code-segment DPL > CPL
        THEN #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT)); FI;
        (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    IF new code-segment descriptor is not present,
        THEN #NP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT)); FI;
        (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    IF new code segment is non-conforming with DPL < CPL
        THEN
            IF VM = 0
                THEN
                        GOTO INTER-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT;
                        (* PE = 1, VM = 0, interrupt or trap gate, nonconforming code segment,
                        DPL < CPL *)
                ELSE (* VM = 1 *)
                        IF new code-segment DPL ≠ 0
                            THEN #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT));
                            (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
                        GOTO INTERRUPT-FROM-VIRTUAL-8086-MODE; FI;
                        (* PE = 1, interrupt or trap gate, DPL < CPL, VM = 1 *)
            FI;
        ELSE (* PE = 1, interrupt or trap gate, DPL ≥ CPL *)
            IF VM = 1
                THEN #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT));
                (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
            IF new code segment is conforming or new code-segment DPL = CPL
                THEN
                        GOTO INTRA-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT;
                ELSE (* PE = 1, interrupt or trap gate, nonconforming code segment, DPL > CPL *)
                        #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT));
                        (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
            FI;
    FI;
END;
INTER-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT:
    (* PE = 1, interrupt or trap gate, non-conforming code segment, DPL < CPL *)
    IF (IA32_EFER.LMA = 0) (* Not IA-32e mode *)
        THEN
        (* Identify stack-segment selector for new privilege level in current TSS *)
            IF current TSS is 32-bit
                THEN
                        TSSstackAddress ← (new code-segment DPL « 3) + 4;
                        IF (TSSstackAddress + 5) > current TSS limit
                            THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                            (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
                        NewSS ← 2 bytes loaded from (TSS base + TSSstackAddress + 4);
                        NewESP ← 4 bytes loaded from (TSS base + TSSstackAddress);
                ELSE (* current TSS is 16-bit *)
                        TSSstackAddress ← (new code-segment DPL « 2) + 2
                        IF (TSSstackAddress + 3) > current TSS limit
                            THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                            (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
                        NewSS ← 2 bytes loaded from (TSS base + TSSstackAddress + 2);
                        NewESP ← 2 bytes loaded from (TSS base + TSSstackAddress);
            FI;
            IF NewSS is NULL
                THEN #TS(EXT); FI;
            IF NewSS index is not within its descriptor-table limits
            or NewSS RPL ≠ new code-segment DPL
                THEN #TS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
            Read new stack-segment descriptor for NewSS in GDT or LDT;
            IF new stack-segment DPL ≠ new code-segment DPL
            or new stack-segment Type does not indicate writable data segment
                THEN #TS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
            IF NewSS is not present
                THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
        ELSE (* IA-32e mode *)
            IF IDT-gate IST = 0
                THEN TSSstackAddress ← (new code-segment DPL « 3) + 4;
                ELSE TSSstackAddress ← (IDT gate IST « 3) + 28;
            FI;
            IF (TSSstackAddress + 7) > current TSS limit
                THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT); FI;
                (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
            NewRSP ← 8 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + TSSstackAddress);
            NewSS ← new code-segment DPL; (* NULL selector with RPL = new CPL *)
    FI;
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit
            THEN
                IF new stack does not have room for 24 bytes (error code pushed)
                or 20 bytes (no error code pushed)
                        THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                        (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
            FI
        ELSE
            IF IDT gate is 16-bit
                THEN
                        IF new stack does not have room for 12 bytes (error code pushed)
                        or 10 bytes (no error code pushed);
                            THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                            (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
            ELSE (* 64-bit IDT gate*)
                IF StackAddress is non-canonical
                        THEN #SS(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
        FI;
    FI;
    IF (IA32_EFER.LMA = 0) (* Not IA-32e mode *)
        THEN
            IF instruction pointer from IDT gate is not within new code-segment limits
                THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
            ESP ← NewESP;
            SS ← NewSS; (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
        ELSE (* IA-32e mode *)
            IF instruction pointer from IDT gate contains a non-canonical address
                THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
            RSP ← NewRSP & FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF0H;
            SS ← NewSS;
    FI;
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit
        THEN
            CS:EIP ← Gate(CS:EIP); (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
        ELSE
            IF IDT gate 16-bit
                THEN
                        CS:IP ← Gate(CS:IP);
                        (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
                ELSE (* 64-bit IDT gate *)
                        CS:RIP ← Gate(CS:RIP);
                        (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
            FI;
    FI;
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit
            THEN
                Push(far pointer to old stack);
                (* Old SS and ESP, 3 words padded to 4 *)
                Push(EFLAGS);
                Push(far pointer to return instruction);
                (* Old CS and EIP, 3 words padded to 4 *)
                Push(ErrorCode); (* If needed, 4 bytes *)
            ELSE
                IF IDT gate 16-bit
                        THEN
                            Push(far pointer to old stack);
                            (* Old SS and SP, 2 words *)
                            Push(EFLAGS(15:0]);
                            Push(far pointer to return instruction);
                            (* Old CS and IP, 2 words *)
                            Push(ErrorCode); (* If needed, 2 bytes *)
                        ELSE (* 64-bit IDT gate *)
                            Push(far pointer to old stack);
                            (* Old SS and SP, each an 8-byte push *)
                            Push(RFLAGS); (* 8-byte push *)
                            Push(far pointer to return instruction);
                            (* Old CS and RIP, each an 8-byte push *)
                            Push(ErrorCode); (* If needed, 8-bytes *)
            FI;
    FI;
    CPL ← new code-segment DPL;
    CS(RPL) ← CPL;
    IF IDT gate is interrupt gate
        THEN IF ← 0 (* Interrupt flag set to 0, interrupts disabled *); FI;
    TF ← 0;
    VM ← 0;
    RF ← 0;
    NT ← 0;
END;
INTERRUPT-FROM-VIRTUAL-8086-MODE:
    (* Identify stack-segment selector for privilege level 0 in current TSS *)
    IF current TSS is 32-bit
        THEN
            IF TSS limit < 9
                THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
            NewSS ← 2 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + 8);
            NewESP ← 4 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + 4);
        ELSE (* current TSS is 16-bit *)
            IF TSS limit < 5
                THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
            NewSS ← 2 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + 4);
            NewESP ← 2 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + 2);
    FI;
    IF NewSS is NULL
        THEN #TS(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
    IF NewSS index is not within its descriptor table limits
    or NewSS RPL ≠ 0
        THEN #TS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
        (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    Read new stack-segment descriptor for NewSS in GDT or LDT;
    IF new stack-segment DPL ≠ 0 or stack segment does not indicate writable data segment
        THEN #TS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
        (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    IF new stack segment not present
        THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
        (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit
        THEN
            IF new stack does not have room for 40 bytes (error code pushed)
            or 36 bytes (no error code pushed)
                THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
        ELSE (* IDT gate is 16-bit)
            IF new stack does not have room for 20 bytes (error code pushed)
            or 18 bytes (no error code pushed)
                THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    FI;
    IF instruction pointer from IDT gate is not within new code-segment limits
        THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
    tempEFLAGS ← EFLAGS;
    VM ← 0;
    TF ← 0;
    RF ← 0;
    NT ← 0;
    IF service through interrupt gate
        THEN IF = 0; FI;
    TempSS ← SS;
    TempESP ← ESP;
    SS ← NewSS;
    ESP ← NewESP;
    (* Following pushes are 16 bits for 16-bit IDT gates and 32 bits for 32-bit IDT gates;
    Segment selector pushes in 32-bit mode are padded to two words *)
    Push(GS);
    Push(FS);
    Push(DS);
    Push(ES);
    Push(TempSS);
    Push(TempESP);
    Push(TempEFlags);
    Push(CS);
    Push(EIP);
    GS ← 0; (* Segment registers made NULL, invalid for use in protected mode *)
    FS ← 0;
    DS ← 0;
    ES ← 0;
    CS ← Gate(CS); (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
    CS(RPL) ← 0;
    CPL ← 0;
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit
        THEN
            EIP ← Gate(instruction pointer);
        ELSE (* IDT gate is 16-bit *)
            EIP ← Gate(instruction pointer) AND 0000FFFFH;
    FI;
    (* Start execution of new routine in Protected Mode *)
END;
INTRA-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT:
    (* PE = 1, DPL = CPL or conforming segment *)
    IF IA32_EFER.LMA = 1 (* IA-32e mode *)
        IF IDT-descriptor IST ≠ 0
            THEN
                TSSstackAddress ← (IDT-descriptor IST « 3) + 28;
                IF (TSSstackAddress + 7) > TSS limit
                        THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                        (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
                NewRSP ← 8 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + TSSstackAddress);
            ELSE NewRSP ← RSP;
        FI;
    FI;
    IF 32-bit gate (* implies IA32_EFER.LMA = 0 *)
        THEN
            IF current stack does not have room for 16 bytes (error code pushed)
            or 12 bytes (no error code pushed)
                THEN #SS(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
        ELSE IF 16-bit gate (* implies IA32_EFER.LMA = 0 *)
            IF current stack does not have room for 8 bytes (error code pushed)
            or 6 bytes (no error code pushed)
                THEN #SS(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
        ELSE (* IA32_EFER.LMA = 1, 64-bit gate*)
                IF NewRSP contains a non-canonical address
                        THEN #SS(EXT); (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
        FI;
    FI;
    IF (IA32_EFER.LMA = 0) (* Not IA-32e mode *)
        THEN
            IF instruction pointer from IDT gate is not within new code-segment limit
                THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
        ELSE
            IF instruction pointer from IDT gate contains a non-canonical address
                THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
            RSP ← NewRSP & FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF0H;
    FI;
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit (* implies IA32_EFER.LMA = 0 *)
        THEN
            Push (EFLAGS);
            Push (far pointer to return instruction); (* 3 words padded to 4 *)
            CS:EIP ← Gate(CS:EIP); (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
            Push (ErrorCode); (* If any *)
        ELSE
            IF IDT gate is 16-bit (* implies IA32_EFER.LMA = 0 *)
                THEN
                        Push (FLAGS);
                        Push (far pointer to return location); (* 2 words *)
                        CS:IP ← Gate(CS:IP);
                        (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
                        Push (ErrorCode); (* If any *)
                ELSE (* IA32_EFER.LMA = 1, 64-bit gate*)
                        Push(far pointer to old stack);
                        (* Old SS and SP, each an 8-byte push *)
                        Push(RFLAGS); (* 8-byte push *)
                        Push(far pointer to return instruction);
                        (* Old CS and RIP, each an 8-byte push *)
                        Push(ErrorCode); (* If needed, 8 bytes *)
                        CS:RIP ← GATE(CS:RIP);
                        (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
            FI;
    FI;
    CS(RPL) ← CPL;
    IF IDT gate is interrupt gate
        THEN IF ← 0; FI; (* Interrupt flag set to 0; interrupts disabled *)
    TF ← 0;
    NT ← 0;
    VM ← 0;
    RF ← 0;
END;

Flags Affected

The EFLAGS register is pushed onto the stack. The IF, TF, NT, AC, RF, and VM flags may be cleared, depending on the mode of operation of the processor when the INT instruction is executed (see the “Operation” section). If the interrupt uses a task gate, any flags may be set or cleared, controlled by the EFLAGS image in the new task’s TSS.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(error_code) If the instruction pointer in the IDT or in the interrupt, trap, or task gate is beyond the code segment limits.
If the segment selector in the interrupt, trap, or task gate is NULL.
If an interrupt, trap, or task gate, code segment, or TSS segment selector index is outside its descriptor table limits.
If the vector selects a descriptor outside the IDT limits.
If an IDT descriptor is not an interrupt, trap, or task gate.
If an interrupt is generated by the INT n, INT3, or INTO instruction and the DPL of an interrupt, trap, or task gate is less than the CPL.
If the segment selector in an interrupt or trap gate does not point to a segment descriptor for a code segment.
If the segment selector for a TSS has its local/global bit set for local.
If a TSS segment descriptor specifies that the TSS is busy or not available.
#SS(error_code) If pushing the return address, flags, or error code onto the stack exceeds the bounds of the stack segment and no stack switch occurs.
If the SS register is being loaded and the segment pointed to is marked not present.
If pushing the return address, flags, error code, or stack segment pointer exceeds the bounds of the new stack segment when a stack switch occurs.
#NP(error_code) If code segment, interrupt gate, trap gate, task gate, or TSS is not present.
#TS(error_code) If the RPL of the stack segment selector in the TSS is not equal to the DPL of the code segment being accessed by the interrupt or trap gate.
If DPL of the stack segment descriptor pointed to by the stack segment selector in the TSS is not equal to the DPL of the code segment descriptor for the interrupt or trap gate.
If the stack segment selector in the TSS is NULL.
If the stack segment for the TSS is not a writable data segment.
If segment-selector index for stack segment is outside descriptor table limits.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#AC(EXT) If alignment checking is enabled, the gate DPL is 3, and a stack push is unaligned.

Real-Address Mode Exceptions

#GP If a memory operand effective address is outside the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segment limit.
If the interrupt vector number is outside the IDT limits.
#SS If stack limit violation on push.
If pushing the return address, flags, or error code onto the stack exceeds the bounds of the stack segment.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.

Virtual-8086 Mode Exceptions

#GP(error_code) (For INT n, INTO, or BOUND instruction) If the IOPL is less than 3 or the DPL of the interrupt, trap, or task gate is not equal to 3.
If the instruction pointer in the IDT or in the interrupt, trap, or task gate is beyond the code segment limits.
If the segment selector in the interrupt, trap, or task gate is NULL.
If a interrupt gate, trap gate, task gate, code segment, or TSS segment selector index is outside its descriptor table limits.
If the vector selects a descriptor outside the IDT limits.
If an IDT descriptor is not an interrupt, trap, or task gate.
If an interrupt is generated by INT n, INT3, or INTO and the DPL of an interrupt, trap, or task gate is less than the CPL.
If the segment selector in an interrupt or trap gate does not point to a segment descriptor for a code segment.
If the segment selector for a TSS has its local/global bit set for local.
#SS(error_code) If the SS register is being loaded and the segment pointed to is marked not present.
If pushing the return address, flags, error code, stack segment pointer, or data segments exceeds the bounds of the stack segment.
#NP(error_code) If code segment, interrupt gate, trap gate, task gate, or TSS is not present.
#TS(error_code) If the RPL of the stack segment selector in the TSS is not equal to the DPL of the code segment being accessed by the interrupt or trap gate.
If DPL of the stack segment descriptor for the TSS’s stack segment is not equal to the DPL of the code segment descriptor for the interrupt or trap gate.
If the stack segment selector in the TSS is NULL.
If the stack segment for the TSS is not a writable data segment.
If segment-selector index for stack segment is outside descriptor table limits.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#OF If the INTO instruction is executed and the OF flag is set.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#AC(EXT) If alignment checking is enabled, the gate DPL is 3, and a stack push is unaligned.

Compatibility Mode Exceptions

Same exceptions as in protected mode.

64-Bit Mode Exceptions

#GP(error_code) If the instruction pointer in the 64-bit interrupt gate or trap gate is non-canonical.
If the segment selector in the 64-bit interrupt or trap gate is NULL.
If the vector selects a descriptor outside the IDT limits.
If the vector points to a gate which is in non-canonical space.
If the vector points to a descriptor which is not a 64-bit interrupt gate or a 64-bit trap gate.
If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector is outside the descriptor table limit.
If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector is in non-canonical space.
If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector is not a code segment.
If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector doesn’t have the L-bit set, or has both the L-bit and D-bit set.
If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector has DPL > CPL.
#SS(error_code) If a push of the old EFLAGS, CS selector, EIP, or error code is in non-canonical space with no stack switch.
If a push of the old SS selector, ESP, EFLAGS, CS selector, EIP, or error code is in non-canonical space on a stack switch (either CPL change or no-CPL with IST).
#NP(error_code) If the 64-bit interrupt-gate, 64-bit trap-gate, or code segment is not present.
#TS(error_code) If an attempt to load RSP from the TSS causes an access to non-canonical space.
If the RSP from the TSS is outside descriptor table limits.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#AC(EXT) If alignment checking is enabled, the gate DPL is 3, and a stack push is unaligned.